Waste-to-Resources 2017 Ways for increased material recycling of material flows from MBTMatthias Kühle-Weidemeier
By implementing modern thermal and non-thermal waste treatment technologies, waste management hast made a big leap forward. In the last two decades, Central Europe has been the motor of the development. The first decade of this century has been a period of development and installation of new processes in numerous locations. This was followed by nearly a decade of minor progress. This article will analyse the current situation and show how higher recycling rates even from mixed and residual waste can be achieved.
Adapted selective waste collection concepts for developing and emerging countries
Source segregation forms the essential precondition for recycling. Separate collection
systems applied in industrialised countries are less suited for developing countries.
Flexible process technology for the mechanical treatment of complex material flowsKatrin Bokelmann, Thorsten Hartfeil, Joachim Knierim, Carsten Gellermann,
The use of electro-hydraulic comminution during mechanical treatment of secondary
raw materials leads to a specific weakening of interfaces within the material.
Experts to topic
Cristina Garcia Lopez RWTH Aachen University
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Pretz RWTH Aachen Univerity - Department of Processing and Recycling
M.Sc. Nemanja Stipic Deutsches Institut für Textil- und Faserforschung Denkendorf (DITF)
Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben A System Model of the Recycling of Critical Raw Materials from Wastes and By-Products in AustriaMag.rer.nat. Bakk.rer.nat. Andreas Schober, Josef-Peter Schöggl, Morgane Marie Caroline Fritz, Univ.-Prof. Dr. mont. Rupert J. Baumgartner, Kerstin Pfandl
The development of the high-technology industry plays an important role for the economic growth particularly in industrialized countries. This industry has a big demand on raw materials which are considered critical due to their economic importance and their associated supply risk (e.g., REE, gallium, germanium, PGE and tantalum). Subsumed under the collective term critical raw materials (CRMs), 14 of these materials were first defined by the Resource Initiative of the European Commission in 2010 and have been updated to 20 in 2014, since the supply with CRMs is crucial for European economies. In consequence the Austrian economic location, being part of the European economic area with a developing high-technology industry also depends in CRMs. Therefore also the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology defined a specific list of materials that are critical or potentially critical for the country and the future manufacture of technological products as well.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –Dr.-Ing. Kazimierz Borkowski
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Disposal of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers – Problems During Recycling and Impacts on Waste IncinerationMarco Limburg, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Quicker
Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are becoming increasingly more ubiquitous in our daily lives. CFRPs are composite materials, consisting of carbon fibers with high mechanical capabilities and a formative polymer matrix. The production process of carbon fibers is complex and energy intensive, thus making CFRPs more expensive than comparable metal materials. The advantage of CFRPs lies in their weight; metal materials of the same properties weight up to five times as much. This makes CFRPs especially valuable in areas, where weight and cost directly correlate, but high mechanical properties are still essential.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft How to Optimize Recycling Rates Using Waste IncinerationTill Lemme, Wilfried Frehmann
The improvement of recycling and reuse of waste is becoming more and more important and it is generally preferred compared to waste incineration. In fact, the incineration of waste is often considered the last alternative when recycling of a certain waste fraction is technically not possible or there is simply no market for the corresponding fraction of the waste. But instead of considering waste incineration as being contradictory to recycling, it may also be considered as an alternative way to achieve higher recycling rates. The main goal of waste to energy is the use of the chemical energy contained in the carbon and drogen, and transfer this into thermal energy. But all other elements contained in the waste will of course also be found in the various residue streams leaving the plant. For these residue streams there are possibilities for further treatment, enabling Separation of certain elements, improvement of the quality of a residue stream to allow re-use on the market or even potential for the preparation of a new product.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Future Development of Waste Management in China According to the 13th Five-Year PlanYanglong Li, Zhai Zhengyu, Dr. Wenchao Teng, Professor Tianhua Yang, Prof. Dr. Rundong Li
Municipal solid waste (MSW) known as trash or garbage consists of food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, PET, glass, textiles, metals, wood and leather, nappies, slug, ash, etc. are arising from human and animal activities. The rapid development and urbanization of China have resulted in an increasing volume of MSW. So the problem of MSW management has become a major social problem, but one the other hand, because of their intrinsic properties, MSW are often reusable and may be considered a resource for energy recovery. The delivering quantity of household waste averages 179 million tons in China, and the amount of untreated MSW over the years has reached 7 billion tons.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Resource Recovery from Waste Using the Input Flexibility of Waste Gasification TechnologyNobuhiro Tanigaki, Ryo Makishi, Toshimi Nagata
Nowadays, gasification of waste or biomass is becoming the great interest all over the world. Especially, gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been well-researched in Japan. The development of MSW gasification technology was started in the 1970s in Japan because of oil crisis. Several technologies have been researched and developed. The Direct Melting System (DMS), which is the gasification and melting technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., is one of the developed waste gasification technologies in this era. This technology was introduced for commercial use in Kamaishi City, Japan in 1979. As well as this waste technology, other gasification technologies have been developed for commercial use and installed.
Eigenbeiträge der Autoren Waste as a chance - Waste recycling in ZimbabweStefan Schmidt, Joschko Ruppersberg
Norton, a small town with 60,000 inhabitants about 40 km west of Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, has no adequate waste management infrastructure. No regular waste separation system has been implemented. Approximately 85% of the households have a regular residual waste collection. The waste is however brought to the dumpsite without any treatment. For many years there was a dumpsite which had neither sealing nor treatment systems for protecting soil, groundwater or the atmosphere, therefore it was harming the environment.
Wasteconsult international Effect of Recycling Bin and Recycling Rates on the Composition of Residual WasteDr.-Ing. Gabriele Becker
The new German Waste Management Act (KrWG) defined a new five-step waste hierarchy (paragraph 6) that lays out the fundamental sequence from waste prevention, reuse, recycling, other recovery operations (including energy recovery) to disposal. Moreover, paragraph 14 stipulates that at least 65 % of municipal solid waste and at least 70 % of construction and demolition waste should be recycled by 2020. Biowaste, paper, metal, plastic and glass waste are to be collected separately under the provisions of paragraph 11 I and paragraph 14 I of the Act from 1 January 2015 at the latest. These rules aim to unlock the high resource potential of wastes with intrinsic value even more efficiently.
Wasteconsult international From Waste to Resources – MBT Technology Through The AgesDipl.-Ing. Rolf Sieksmeyer, Dipl.-Phys. Jürgen Martens
In 2012, 493 kg of municipal waste were produced per person in Europe. Denmark, with 668 kg of municipal waste per person, produced the highest per-capita amount of waste, followed by Cyprus, Luxembourg and Germany with each generating more than 600 kg per person. An enormous amount of goods used in everyday life is produced from plastic: bottles, shopping bags, disposable tableware, pipes, discs, textile fibres, furnishings, and many
bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH bifa Text No. 64: Hygienically optimised collection of biowastes with ecovio biowaste bagsDr. Klaus Hoppenheidt, Jadranka Grganovic, Susanne Nischwitz
In the bifa Text No 64, the collection of biowaste without biowaste bags was compared to collection in paper bags, PE bags and biowaste bags made of the compostable plastic ecovio.
bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH bifa-Text No. 62: Ecoefficiency analysis of photovoltaic modules / english versionMatthias Seitz, Dr. Malgorzata Kroban, Dipl.- Ing. Thorsten Pitschke, Dr. Siegfried Kreibe
The study by the bifa environmental institute describes a future-orientated view of the ecological and economic effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems along their whole life cycle.
Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben RecoDust-Process for the Recycling of Steel Mill DustsNikolas Delfs, Bernhard Geier, Univ. Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Harald Raupenstrauch
For the processing of metals and their oxides there is always the problem of residual materials like dusts or sludges. Because of that, environmental concerns become more and more important to the government and to companies. Due to changes in environmental laws, the disposal of process residues becomes more challenging and more expensive. This is the reason why inertisation of hazardous materials and the fabrication of saleable products get more interesting for the metal industry.
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung ASA e.V. Influence of the revised German waste law on the source separated collection of organic waste and recyclablesDr.-Ing. Gabriele Becker
In order to implement the European Waste Framework Directive into national legislation the present Closed Substance Cycle and Waste Management Act (KrW-/AbfG) has been amended. The new German waste law "Closed Substance Cycle Management Act (KrWG) is already adopted by the Lower German Federal Parliament but didn’t yet receive the approval of the upper house of German Federal Parliament and still remains in the conciliation committee. In this paper the regulations relevant for biowaste and the recyclable fraction in the new German Waste Law and the effects to be expected are presented.
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung ASA e.V. Marketing Opportunities for German Recycling TechnologyNaemi Denz
German manufacturers are among the leading suppliers of waste and recycling technologies around the world. Their portfolio covers all fields of technology from landfill gas recovery to composting plants. However, not all external markets have a demand for all technologies. In addition, most importers encounter a wide variety of trade barriers, differing from country to country.
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung ASA e.V. Adapting Waste Fees to Changing Material FlowsProf. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Gellenbeck, Dipl.-Ing. Kathrin Heuer
Due in particular to increased waste separation, but also to demographic and other developments relating to waste management (e.g. falling quantities of commercial waste, providers of waste management services etc.), the volume of waste being disposed of using the grey residual waste containers is becoming smaller and smaller. Yet in almost all parts of Germany, most of the costs are passed on to the debtor of fees using the “residual waste bins allocation formulaâ€. If largely unchanging costs are distributed across an ever decreasing scale, this will mean a gradual increase in fee rates, which cannot be expedient.
This problem and potential solutions are discussed in detail in the article.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Experimental Analysis of the Aerobic stabilization Efficiency of an existing MBT plantProf-Ing. Francesco Di Maria, Dr. Moreno Marionni, F. Castellani
The management of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has been strongly improved by the last Waste FrameworkDirective 2008/98/CE, by increasing the amount of waste materials that have to be reutilized, prepared for reutilizationand/or recycled. In any case, even if these goals will be achieved, a large amount of residual MSW from the SourceSegregated collection (SS) will need to be properly managed.Incineration is a quite suitable way for managing these materials even if it is costly and not homogenously spread in thedifferent European Areas.
A. Sordi - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale
C. Micale - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale
G. Cirulli - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Compost Quality assesment and eow processus application to 4 types of compostJean-Luc Martel
Analysis of compost is of major importance because it directly impacts on its final destination. According to the level ofcontamination and the national standards in each country, compost can be used on all crops including edible vegetables,on extended agriculture, on restoration lands, as landfill cover or simply landfilled if too contaminated. The End ofWaste process introduced by the Waste Framework Directive 2008/98 and currently managed by the Joint ResearchCentre in Seville is moving a step forward.
Y. Decelle - SITA Belgium
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Leakage control of Biogas plantsDr. Joachim Clemens, Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Schreier
Anaerobic digestion has become a very important technology to treat organic waste and to generate renewable energy. During construction and operation leaks at biogas plants may occur and methane is emitted.
S. Neitzel - Systemtechnik Weser-Ems
S. Kohne - esders Ltd
NMC Ltd. The experiences of waste collecting company with motivation of residents and municipalities for sortingMVDr. Jiøí Neužil
Abstract and Power Point Presentation
WtERT USA , Columbia University, EarthEngineering Center PART A: MSW Management in the City of Buenos Aires, Argentina and Potential for a Waste-To-Energy Plant. PART B: Upgrading Low BTU Fuels to Reduce Emissions in Internal Combustion Engines.Natali Ganfer
PART A: Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a major concern for most Argentinean municipalities. The population of most Argentinean municipalities is constantly increasing. As a result of the increase, the cities’ borders constantly expand and this results to ever increasing land prices in areas closer to the city. These factors coupled with a population who refuse to have waste management facilities located near their houses (phenomenon known as “not in my backyardâ€), results in landfills located further and further away from population centers. The City of Buenos Aires (CBA or the City) and its metropolitan area were selected as the subject of the present analysis on SWM for its critical role in Argentinean MSW disposal. This area generates 40% of the total MSW of the country. The Accesso Norte III landfill is utilized to dispose of 90% of this waste i.e. 36% of the country’s MSW is expected to reach its full capacity in 2012.
Wasteconsult international Municipal Solid Waste sorting and treatment in Romania: strategies of energy recovery from two pilot case studiesGabriela Ionescu, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Elena Cristina Rada, Dr.-Ing. Adrian Badea, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Marco Ragazzi, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Tiberiu Apostol
In the past decade, one of the main topics analyzed in the waste management area is how to dispose of the large quantities of municipal solid waste (MSW).
Wasteconsult international Status and prospects of treatment technology for material and energy recovery from commercial solid wasteDipl.-Ing. Rüdiger Oetjen-Dehne, Manfred Kanthak
A research project on behalf of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection aims to assess the quantity, the management and the aspects of resource preservation of commercial solid wastes.
Wasteconsult international Sensor-based Sorting Systems for the Generation of a Landfill Fraction out of the Heavy Fraction of a MBT PlantB.Sc. Martina Meirhofer, Prof. Dr. Arne Michael Ragoßnig, Dipl.-Ing. Manuel Sommer, Dipl.-Ing. Mag. Simone Pieber
Practical Experience and Comparison of Processing Alternatives
Wasteconsult international Splitting of heterogeneous waste by sensor-based sorting as a basis for optimized material-specific waste-routingDipl.-Ing. Mag. Simone Pieber, DI Dr. Arne Michael Ragossnig, Dipl.-Ing. Manuel Sommer, Alexander Curtis, Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger
In the presented work material-specific sensor-based sorting was evaluated for its technical application on heterogeneous wastes on a pilot and a large scale, in order to optimize the routing options of waste streams in an economically attractive way.