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Composition of Waste: Case Study 1 (an example from Turkey)
Circular Economy
Energy Recovery
Recyling centres by Modulo Beton Nederland B.V as an example of bring systems
Professional articles about: politics, laws, planning, administration, result of the latest research etc.

Effect of Organic Carbon in MSWI Bottom Ash on the Mobilization of Heavy Metals
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Nowadays municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) are playing a major role in waste Management activities. Especially in Switzerland, where the morphology of the country is quite disadvantageous, burning the municipal waste material seems to be the most favorable way to handle These types of waste.

Sequential Extraction as a Method for Analysis of Heavy Metals Mobility in Soils
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Polluted soil with metals could affect human health through direct contact with soil, but potentially greater threats could rise, for example, from infiltration of the metals into groundwater aquifers or by the plant uptake of those. The hazard in soil attributable to metals is often assessed by determination of their total content or pseudo-total content in soil.

Evaluation of SRF Production from Biodegradable MSW: A Case Study for Izmir City-Turkey
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Waste is a significant and inevitable consequences of human activities; therefore, solid waste management becomes the most important and difficult problem for cities. The development in modern civilization and the increase in the population increase the amount of solid waste generated and change the composition of the solid waste. The increasing consumption of raw materials both produces more waste and requires new sources.

An Investigation on GIS-based Estimation of Municipal Solid Waste Generation
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
All planning, design and evaluation practices – from selection of waste bins (i.e. the number and the capacity) to evaluating alternative disposal options and planning Actions for waste reduction – in municipal solid waste (MSW) management depend on the solid waste generation data.
Solid waste generation is affected by different aspects. So, setting a general approach (forecasting model) for the estimation of solid waste generation in all regions or cities is impossible. This behavior, in turn, is affected by many other factors. These range from environmental factors to economic and demographic factors.
GIS are effective tools for the analysis of spatial variability (distribution) of demographic factors (e.g. population), and thus solid waste generation. This study aims to analyze spatial relationship between MSW generation and demographic factor “population” and estimate solid waste generation rate in Turkey by applying a GIS-based statistical approach.

A SWOT Analysis for Municipal Waste Management in Turkey and the Challenges in the Course of Access to EU
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Just after the release of Waste Management Action Plan for 2008-2012 period in Turkey, TR - EU negotiations in environment chapter have opened. In the following period, many revisions in present TR regulations have completed and new directives and legislations were put into force on waste management, mostly in accordance with EU acquisitions. While the changes in the regulations in MSW management are realized, some factors are influencing and sometimes blocking their implementation. One of the major reasons is limited number of qualified stuff in regional units of the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization. The main challenge for the municipalities is to select and locate a waste management facility with proper combination of technologies while having very limited contact with experts at universities. In addition, neither the ministry nor the municipalities could overcome the public reactions to waste Management facilities. Another significant shortcoming is the incomplete adaption of EU legislation. Implementation of new legislation is possible by immediate developing of national, regional and local waste management plans and supply of satisfactory number of stuff with required expertise.

Creating, Regulating and Allocating Rights to Offset and Pollute: Carbon Rights in Practice
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2016)
The adoption and entering into force of the Paris Agreement is a welcome occasion to re-assess the legal foundations of emissions trading and, in particular, the nature of ‘carbon rights’. Cap-and-trade (‘allowances’) and baseline-and-credit (‘credits’) represent the main Emission trading approaches, the former imposing compliance obligations, the latter stipulating voluntary action to reduce and monetize emissions. Each approach comes with legal characteristics and raises legal questions concerning property rights and protection, taxation, and financial regulation, on the one hand, and the proper recognition of individual mitigation efforts (in the context of environmental services) and participation rights, on the other hand. This article places the different type of rights in the context of their creation, purpose, and function.

Legal Aspects of Emission Reductions and Carbon Credits under Evolving Climate Finance Mechanisms in Brazil
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2016)
Brazil broke some ground by submitting an absolute GHG-reduction goal under the Paris Agreement, but the country must now cope with implementing the needed regulatory Tools promote public and private climate action. Climate financing has evolved substantially in the past years, ranging from crediting systems, to results-based payments, to carbon pricing instruments.

Private Party Standing and EU Risk Regulation
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2016)
Standing determines a person’s ability to obtain judicial review of a legal act by the government. Judicial review of EU measures, including risk regulatory measures, is an important device to ensure that the rule of law is respected. Even after the changes brought about by the Lisbon Treaty, private parties still have limited standing rights under EU law to challenge EU risk regulations.While they are able to challenge “decisions” addressed to them (or, in some cases, addressed to others), they generally have been unable to claim standing at the European courts to seek reviewof generally binding rules. These restricted standing rights for private parties have been the subject of debate and criticism, both before and after the changes brought about by the Lisbon Treaty.

Modelling of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) Properties Based on Material Composition – Chloride Quality
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Producing solid recovered fuels (SRF) is a well-established route for recovering energy resources from municipal solid waste (household and/or commercial). Chloride content critically impacts the quality of SRF. It directly influences operation of thermal processes, having deleterious effects through the high temperature corrosion of the boilers and through demands placed on the flue gas treatment (FGT) system, which could impact emissions control. Whereas design and specification of process plant can mitigate the technical issues associated with the presence of chloride experienced during thermal treatment, processing such fuels is associated with increased capital, operating and maintenance costs. This, at best, restricts the uptake/use of SRF or increases the cost of its treatment towards achieving a reduced chloride content.

Resource Recovery from Waste Using the Input Flexibility of Waste Gasification Technology
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Nowadays, gasification of waste or biomass is becoming the great interest all over the world. Especially, gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been well-researched in Japan. The development of MSW gasification technology was started in the 1970s in Japan because of oil crisis. Several technologies have been researched and developed. The Direct Melting System (DMS), which is the gasification and melting technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., is one of the developed waste gasification technologies in this era. This technology was introduced for commercial use in Kamaishi City, Japan in 1979. As well as this waste technology, other gasification technologies have been developed for commercial use and installed.

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Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facility

Renergia, a brand new Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facility opened in Canton Lucerne, shows that Waste-to-Energy can provide reliable heat for industries.

Category: Incineration / Waste-to-Energy plant
Executing firm: Renergia Zentralschweiz AG

MBT Ljubljana, Slovenia

In Slovenia arises one of the largest and most modern waste treatment plants in Europe.

Category: Recycling / MBT
Executing firm: STRABAG AG

Flue Gas Cleaning

The final unit of the incineration plant is one of the most important parts as it has the objective of cleaning the air pollutants produced.

Category: Incineration
Executing firm: ete.a - Ingenieurgesellschaft für Energie– und Umweltengineering & Beratung mbH

Batch Dry Fermentation

The biogas produced from the waste can be converted in a CHP to electrical and thermal energy or fed as processed bio-methane into the natural gas grid or used as fuel (CNG).

Category: Recycling / Fermentation
Executing firm: BEKON Energy Technologies Co. & KG

MBT Warsaw, Poland

The Bio-Dry™ system is a static, aerated and flexibly enclosed reactor for the biological drying of various solid waste matters containing some biodegradable contents.

Category: Recycling / MBT
Executing firm: Convaero GmbH

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