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Incineration


Municipal solid waste in the furnace of a moving grate incinerator

Thermal treatment is a solution for treating nonrecyclable and nonreusable waste in an environmental and economical friendly way. Thermal treatment reduces the volume and mass of the waste and inerts the hazardous components, while at the same time generating thermal and/or electrical energy and minimizing pollutant emissions to air and water.

Waste Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification are the possible thermal treatment processes. In modern European waste management waste incineration plays the absolute dominant role. The processes result in residual products from the waste as well as products resulting from flue gas cleaning additives, which afterwards have to be deposited at a controlled site such as a landfill or a mine. After thermal treatment ferrous and non-ferrous metals can be recovered and recycled. Also the grate ash or slag can be recovered for building purposes. Nutrients and organic matter are destroyed and cannot be recovered after thermal treatment.

In the European Union, Directive 2000/76/EC on the Incineration of Waste regulates waste incineration facilities and sets the limits for emissions into the atmosphere and discharge limits into the water. The objective of the Directive is to prevent or reduce, as much as possible, the pollution caused by incineration or co-incineration of waste to the air, water and soil that may affect human health.

See Also


 
Incineration
Pyrolysis
Gasification
Co-Incineration
Flue Gas Cleaning
Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facility in Canton Lucerne

Professional articles about: incineration plants on their way to thermal treatment plants

Feasability Study of Capturing CO2 from the Klemetsrud CHP Waste-to-Energy Plant in Oslo
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The municipality of Oslo by Energigjennvinningsetaten (EGE) was in December 2015 awarded funding from Gassnova – a state owned company that coordinates the Norwegian CCS-work – to conduct a feasibility study. The purpose of the feasibility study was to demonstrate at least one workable solution for carbon capture from energy recovery for waste, with technical descriptions, cost estimates, project plan and plan and budget for the next phase.

How to Optimize Recycling Rates Using Waste Incineration
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The improvement of recycling and reuse of waste is becoming more and more important and it is generally preferred compared to waste incineration. In fact, the incineration of waste is often considered the last alternative when recycling of a certain waste fraction is technically not possible or there is simply no market for the corresponding fraction of the waste. But instead of considering waste incineration as being contradictory to recycling, it may also be considered as an alternative way to achieve higher recycling rates. The main goal of waste to energy is the use of the chemical energy contained in the carbon and drogen, and transfer this into thermal energy. But all other elements contained in the waste will of course also be found in the various residue streams leaving the plant. For these residue streams there are possibilities for further treatment, enabling Separation of certain elements, improvement of the quality of a residue stream to allow re-use on the market or even potential for the preparation of a new product.

Complex Approach towards the Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants’ Future Potential
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
There is a fierce debate ongoing about future recycling targets for municipal solid waste (MSW) at the European level. The old linear concept of waste management is being changed into a circular economy. Since the separation yield and post-recycling MSW (later on residual solid waste, RSW) production have an opposite relationship, assuming the constant production of particular components (paper, plastics etc.), lower RSW rates are also expected. This is having a negative effect on Waste-to-energy (WtE); especially in terms of its future optimum capacity in particular countries.

Wrong Tracks in Waste Management
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste Management is ubiquitous in our everyday life. Economic prosperity and the abundance of materialistic goods imply the generation of waste. In parallel the public awareness for environmentally sound solutions in the field of waste management is raising. This context imposes challenging conditions for political leaders. Often politicians are confronted to take decisions about concepts or investments in waste management without independent expertise. They are approached by vendors of waste treatment technologies or concepts, claiming high environmental and energetic performance, combined with profitable cost – benefit rates.

New Developments for an Efficient SNCR Monitoring and Regulation System by Evaluating the NOx Mass Flow Profile
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
When the SNCR process was introduced first in the eighties of the last century the focus was directed towards applying this low cost technology mainly in combustion plants where only relatively low NOx reduction rates were required. In these types of boilers, like waste-to-energy plants (WtE), the required NOx limits < 200 mg/Nm3 could be maintained easily. Today, NOx limits of 100 mg/Nm3 and lower can be achieved and guaranteed at all operating conditions for these applications. Therefore, the SNCR process represents the Best Available Technology (BAT) today. As a result, more and more owners of waste-to-energy plants take advantage of the low costs at comparable performance and replace their existing SCR system with SNCR.

Innovative Application Methods of Slags from High-Temperature-Gasifying-and-Direct-Melting System
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
JFE High-Temperature Gasifying and Direct Melting Furnace System (hereinafter Gasifying and Melting System) was developed to treat any kind of wastes and to contribute to energy and material recovery. Gasifying and Melting System was developed by integrating company’s original technologies for the iron-making blast furnace and fluidized bed for incineration plants, which the company cultivated over many years. The company’s advanced technologies in these two different fields were combined and integrated into the unique Gasifying and Melting System. This system is a proven technology that realizes high performance

Significance of and Challenges for Flue Gas Treatment Systems in Waste Incineration
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Flue gas cleaning downstream of waste incineration plants had its origins in the increased construction and deployment of such plants to counter rising air pollution in the nineteen-sixties. Back then, the ever-growing burden on the environment caused lawmakers to start enacting emission limits for air pollution control. An unceasing series of environmental scandals and increasingly better analytical methods and measuring instrumentation led to a constant reduction of the emission limits and, consequently, to ongoing adjustment and further development of the necessary process stages in flue gas cleaning. As a result, today minimum emissions can be reached even under the challenging condition of deployment of a very inhomogeneous fuel (waste) and, hence, waste incineration today is no longer a key contributor to air pollution. Today, the need for flue gas cleaning is not called into doubt anymore and has long become a matter of course in the industry and in society at large. Apart from ensuring efficient elimination of noxious gases, the focus of today’s further developments is on issues such as energy efficiency, minimization of input materials and recovery and recycling of by-products from flue gas cleaning as valuable raw materials. These issues are also deemed to be key challenges, especially when it comes to selecting sites for new plants in such a manner that potential synergies can be exploited. Such aspects will also have to be considered in the plans for the predicted mega-cities of the future.

Development of Waste-to-Energy Projects
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The first objective of waste management must always be to protect society and the health of individuals from harmful substances contained in the waste. Along the various methods around the globe with which waste has been treated the waste pyramid or waste management hierarchy has become widely accepted as the governing principle for waste management in modern societies. These principles have also been integrated in the European waste framework directive 2008/98/EC. At the bottom of the pyramid lays disposal of waste, meaning it is the least favourable option to treat a primary waste. However this does not mean implementing the waste pyramid prohibits disposal. It merely means that before disposal all other meaningful options are exhausted, and the quantity has been minimized.

Application of Modified NiCrMo Alloy Systems for Boiler Tube Surface Protection in Waste-to-Energy Environments
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Internationally, Waste to Energy and Incineration markets continue to grow in capacity as fossil fueled facilities decline and nuclear generation is curtailed. With this comes a greater need to burn more corrosive materials combust at higher temperatures and extract more energy. The reliability burden that this places on operators of plants is re-opening opportunities for thermal spray solutions as a cost effective solution for boiler tube protection. Where maintenance costs, opportunity costs and access restrictions may preclude alternative in-situ technologies, thermal spray technology may fill a gap in providing new reliable and flexible process and materials technologies for both mid- and long-term protection of water wall and superheater tubes. While historically thermal spray coating solutions have had a spotty record in waste to energy environments, advances in both process and materials technology specifically for WTE environments is such that coating performance now approaches the performance of high alloy wrought materials. This is verified through accurate laboratory modeling and scale tests and trials conducted by OEM’s and plants.

The Market for Mechanical Biological Waste Treatment Plants in Europe
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Both the number and capacities of mechanical biological treatment plants (MBT plants) have increased significantly in the past years. In late 2015, about 490 MBT plants were active in Europe, reaching a disposal capacity of circa 47 million annual tons. However, despite its steady growth, the MBT market showed volatility. The market development peaked in 2005/2006, with the commissioning of about 80 plants with a capacity of circa 9 million annual tons. In 2015, about 13 new facilities with a capacity of around 2.2 million annual tons went online. The MBT market has also shifted geographically, because the European countries have started implementing the EU Landfill Directive in different years. After MBT plants had mainly been constructed in Southern Europe, Germany and Austria before 2006, investments shifted towards the UK and more recently, towards Eastern Europe. In the coming years, an ambivalent development is expected. Whereas further MBT plants will be constructed in countries still sending large shares of their MSW to landfills, MBT technology will experience increasing pressure in the countries with low landfilling shares.

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BEST PRACTICE

Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facility

Renergia, a brand new Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facility opened in Canton Lucerne, shows that Waste-to-Energy can provide reliable heat for industries.

Category: Incineration / Waste-to-Energy plant
Executing firm: Renergia Zentralschweiz AG

MBT Ljubljana, Slovenia

In Slovenia arises one of the largest and most modern waste treatment plants in Europe.

Category: Recycling / MBT
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Flue Gas Cleaning

The final unit of the incineration plant is one of the most important parts as it has the objective of cleaning the air pollutants produced.

Category: Incineration
Executing firm: ete.a - Ingenieurgesellschaft für Energie– und Umweltengineering & Beratung mbH

Batch Dry Fermentation

The biogas produced from the waste can be converted in a CHP to electrical and thermal energy or fed as processed bio-methane into the natural gas grid or used as fuel (CNG).

Category: Recycling / Fermentation
Executing firm: BEKON Energy Technologies Co. & KG

MBT Warsaw, Poland

The Bio-Dry™ system is a static, aerated and flexibly enclosed reactor for the biological drying of various solid waste matters containing some biodegradable contents.

Category: Recycling / MBT
Executing firm: Convaero GmbH

 
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