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Biological Treatment

2-Stage Wet Fermentation Plant in Kirchstockach, Germany.

The representative average molecular formula, excluding nitrogen and other minor components, of biodegradable waste is C6H10O4. In Europe, this type of waste comprises some 50 – 65 percent of the waste composition and has average water content between 15 – 70 percent. Depending on the water content, the biodegradable waste can be divided into two groups: dry organic waste (e.g. yard waste, textiles, dry organic production waste, wood) and wet organic waste (e.g. food and canteen waste, fruits and vegetables, wet and liquid organic production waste).

Energy from the wet organic waste fraction can be obtained by fermenting it to produce biogas and then combusting the biogas to generate renewable energy or treating it to produce bio methane. During the fermentation process microorganisms decompose the available organic matter, reducing the volume and producing compost. The fermentation produces mainly CH4 and CO2 gas and a compost product suitable after further treatment as a soil enhancer.

Depending on the water content in the digester, the anaerobic digestion process can be classified into wet and dry fermentation. Wet fermentation refers to total solid content in the Digestor with less than 12 percent of dry matter, while dry fermentation refers to digester feed with 30 percent of dry matter or more.

Other biological treatment processes are the production of biochar or liquid fuel as well as composting.

See Also

Anaerobic Digestion Process
Mechanical Biological Treatment - MBT
Batch Dry Fermentation
Wet Anaerobic Digestion Plant
Refuse Derived Fuels - solid recovered fuels for the cement industry
Liquid Fuel
MBT Warsaw, Poland
Professional articles about: waste collection, recycling, biological treatment,  saving energy by smart production with raw materials etc.

Regenerative Thermal Oxidation in the Cement Industry – Technology and Operation –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The cement industry plays a pivotal role in meeting society’s needs for housing and infrastructure. Cement is one of the most important and widely used commodities in the world and is therefore a key ingredient of economic development. Current world production of cement is well above 4,500 million tons per year and growing.

Refuse Derived Fuel – A European Market Heading for Overcapacity
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
During the last five years, the residual waste market has been transformed from one whose geography was largely defined by a country’s borders to one that has become truly European in nature. Increasing, and now significant, tonnages of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and solid recovered fuel (SRF) are moving across national boundaries. In the UK, for example, the export of RDF and SRF has grown from 250,000 tonnes per annum (tpa) in 2011 to 3.4 million tpa in 2015.

International Experience of Risks Sharing between Public and Private Entities in Energy-from-Waste Plants Construction
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Imagine that you are the mayor of a city named Metropolis and are in Charge of School logistics. Before doing so, you might have to ask yourself a few essential questions. What kind of transportation will you provide? Who will it benefit: students, staff or both? Where will the service be provided? When will it be provided: in the evening, morning? And finally, how much will it cost? All these essential questions need to be answered before starting to implement this project and to buy your buses. By doing so, planning, financing, building and operating the chosen mean of Transportation will become an easier task. After that, your political decisions will direct the choice of implication of private sector on the different aspects of your project.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

Waste Management in India and Experience with the Implementation of Projects Based on Public Private Partnership Model
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Decades of improper Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management has resulted in the creation of huge dumpsites in cities. These dumpsites are causing considerable environmental pollution and are full to capacity in most cities. Land for new disposal sites is not easily available due to increasing urbanization and population pressure. In many cases there is considerable protest from surrounding villages for setting up of a new MSW disposal site.

Review of the Best Available Techniques Reference Document (BREF) for Waste Incineration – What is the Current Status?
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Best Available Techniques Reference Documents (BREF) are a central point of technical environmental protection in Europe. This involves connected to the IED a higher liability of the BREF because they are updated regularly. Even their further implementation and monitoring at the national level were laid down precisely.

Current Developments in European Waste-to-Energy
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In December 2015, one year after withdrawing the first Circular Economy package, the Juncker Commission published a broader and more ambitious proposal with revised targets and harmonized calculation methods for recycling. In parallel, the European Commission is still working on the Energy Union, a strategy that is the core of the institution’s work in which Waste-to-Energy will play a role. Finally, the Commission will publish a communication focused on Waste-to-Energy aiming to explore the opportunities offered by Waste-to-Energy, particularly with regard to synergies between resource and energy efficiencies by the end of 2016.

Future Fuels from Residual Biomass
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (6/2016)
Already at an early stage of biofuels development and production it became obvious, that a potential competition to food and feed production could occur, supported by a number a potential studies and systems analysis. Based on their results a concept was derived for the use of the vast amounts of low grade, residual biomass for use in large scale synthetic biofuels production.

Mixing in biogas digesters: correlations between laboratory experiments on artificial substrate and simulations with computational fluid dynamics
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (6/2016)
Energy demand for mixing of biomass digesters is a crucial parameter in design and operation of biogas plants. Optimization of flow characteristics in the fermentation process is usually focused on the stirrers where their placement, shape and number, as well as their rotational speed and switching sequence are all important decision variables for overall energy efficiency planning.

Waste as a chance - Waste recycling in Zimbabwe
© Eigenbeiträge der Autoren (6/2016)
Norton, a small town with 60,000 inhabitants about 40 km west of Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, has no adequate waste management infrastructure. No regular waste separation system has been implemented. Approximately 85% of the households have a regular residual waste collection. The waste is however brought to the dumpsite without any treatment. For many years there was a dumpsite which had neither sealing nor treatment systems for protecting soil, groundwater or the atmosphere, therefore it was harming the environment.

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Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facility

Renergia, a brand new Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facility opened in Canton Lucerne, shows that Waste-to-Energy can provide reliable heat for industries.

Category: Incineration / Waste-to-Energy plant
Executing firm: Renergia Zentralschweiz AG

MBT Ljubljana, Slovenia

In Slovenia arises one of the largest and most modern waste treatment plants in Europe.

Category: Recycling / MBT
Executing firm: STRABAG AG

Flue Gas Cleaning

The final unit of the incineration plant is one of the most important parts as it has the objective of cleaning the air pollutants produced.

Category: Incineration
Executing firm: ete.a - Ingenieurgesellschaft für Energie– und Umweltengineering & Beratung mbH

Batch Dry Fermentation

The biogas produced from the waste can be converted in a CHP to electrical and thermal energy or fed as processed bio-methane into the natural gas grid or used as fuel (CNG).

Category: Recycling / Fermentation
Executing firm: BEKON Energy Technologies Co. & KG

MBT Warsaw, Poland

The Bio-Dry™ system is a static, aerated and flexibly enclosed reactor for the biological drying of various solid waste matters containing some biodegradable contents.

Category: Recycling / MBT
Executing firm: Convaero GmbH

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