Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben Sequential Extraction as a Method for Analysis of Heavy Metals Mobility in SoilsSusana Casaseca, Dr. Martin Wellacher
Polluted soil with metals could affect human health through direct contact with soil, but potentially greater threats could rise, for example, from infiltration of the metals into groundwater aquifers or by the plant uptake of those. The hazard in soil attributable to metals is often assessed by determination of their total content or pseudo-total content in soil.
Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben LNAPL/DNAPL Phase Skimming on the Contaminated Site „Kokerei Linzâ€Christoph Angermayer, Gregor Gnjezda, Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Schönberg
The coke oven plant started production in 1942 and was rebuilt after the extensive damage towards the end of World War II. For the production of by-products tar and crude benzene (light oil, coal) were distilled on site. Due to the effects of war and associated with the destruction of various parts of the coking plant, there were massive contaminations of the soil at the operational facilities. Based on these contaminations in soil there is still a signifi cant input of pollutants into the groundwater.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Evolution of the microbial activity in wheat straw-compost amended soils under polluted conditions (Cu-As)Jorge Medina, Eduardo Enrique Morales, Dr. Sebastián Meier, Dr. Fernando Borie, Dr. Pablo Cornejo Rivas
Composts from agricultural residues are degraded relatively fast under field conditions. In order to improve the C stabilization, composting studies were conducted including addition of metallic oxides for altering C stabilization via changes of chemical properties of humic acids (HAs).
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Soil physical measurements in a long-term sewage sludge compost experimentAttila Tomócsik, V. Orosz, Marianna Makádi
In Hungary, large areas of sandy soils are in the regions of Somogy, Kiskunság and Nyírség. In the region of Nyírség, there are more than 400.000 hectares of sandy soils. These soils are poor in mineral and organic colloids and have a low fertility as determined by low water retention and shortage of macro- and micronutrients.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Occurrence of tetracycline in sewage sludge and effect of the soil type on tetracycline adsorptionDr. Claudio Inostroza Huaracán, Marco Campos, M. C. Diez, Heidi Laura Schalchli Saez
The sewage sludge (SS) have been used as soil enhancers by promoting physical and chemical processes. There are a high percentage of antibiotics which are poorly degraded even in biological systems. The aims of this study were to identify and quantify tetracyclines (TC) in three different SS used as organic amendment and to evaluate the effect of the soil type (Andisol and Ultisols), organic matter (OM) and pH on TC adsorption.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Nutrients from anaerobic digestates in a range of ornamental and edible horticultural applicationsDr. David Tompkins
The anaerobic digestion sector in the UK continues to increase rapidly, with 42 commercial, waste-fed plants operational by January 2014, with an operational capacity of around 2 million tonnes.
Whilst agriculture and field horticulture are the most important sectors for digestate use, these are not considered to be high value markets for digestate. WRAP has therefore supported a range of trials and feasibility studies with digestate in alternate markets – including table-top strawberries and protected salad crops (fertigation); growing media (peat replacement); and sports turf (fertiliser replacement).
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Sources of nitrogen in organic farmingDr. Maja ManojloviÄ‡
Plant nutrition with nitrogen (N) in organic farming is based on the use of natural soil fertility which can be maintained and increased by cultivation of legumes, plowing under of harvest residues and application of different types of manures and composts. Unlike the other essential nutrients, N in the soils and fertilizers permitted for use in organic farming is mainly in the organic forms which are not directly accessible to the plants and which have to be mineralized to the forms available to the plants.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Vermicompost and vermi-leachate impact on strawberry yield and fruit qualityDr. Maja ManojloviÄ‡, Nenad Magazin
With the increasing need to conserve natural resources, recycling of organic wastes assumes major importance. In this respect, vermicomposting, as technology for effective recycling of organic wastes, is an environmentally acceptable means of converting waste into nutritious compost.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. The use of elemental sulphur to control pH in potting soil mixtures with green waste compostDr. ir. Bart Vandecasteele, Barbara Hoekstra
We tested the feasibility to reduce or completely replace peat in potting soil without quality reduction.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Technosols manufacturing from sewage sludge to recover degraded soilsMarcos Martin
The Technosols (TCNS) are “anthropogeomorphic materialâ€, which includes those residues from anthropogenic activities, with similar characteristics to the geological and biogenic components of soils that can act as source material of them through the edaphogenesis processes.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Enzymatic activity and humic acids correlation during maturity of grape pomace composting processMaria M. Martinez, Rodrigo Ortega, Prof. Dr. Marc J.J. Janssens
To determine the correlation between enzymatic activity and humic and fulvic acids content, as maturity indicators, in a grape pomace composting process, the evolution of enzymatic activities Î²-glucosidase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase, humic (Ha) and fulvic (Fa) acid contents C/N, Ha/Fa, and N-NH4/NNO3 ratios and were evaluated, during a 180-day period.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Agronomical valorisation of bovine slaughterhouse waste by aerobic composting: effects of the compost obtained on tomato (Solanum Lycoperscicum) germination and growth, variety of mongol-hybrid F1, in vegetation potsMamadou A. Seck
Compost originating in the mixture of household waste, chicken droppings and fish flour organic residues was used as an organic improvement in a tomato culture. The experimental device included 10 plots of 15 m2 each with 5 test plots and 5 check plots. All plots had received 30 kg of horse manure and the same amount of fish flour; only the test plots had received 7 tons of compost per hectare and had not been the object of phytosanitary treatment unlike the check plots that had been treated against nematodes and fungi.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Ecological and economic benefits of compost and digestate productsElka Vandaele, Kristel Vandenbroek, Wim Vanden Auweele, Ingrid Vandenbroucke, Christophe Boogaerts
European soils are systematically degrading. The European Soil Strategy urges more attention to the need for organic matter in soil: 45% of the soils in Europe show a lack of organic matter. This is also a problem in Flanders: almost 50% of the soils are below the target of organic matter. A range of measures is necessary for restoring the organic matter content: green manures, crop residues, organic fertilizer and soil improvers will all be needed. It is therefore of great importance that in the future sufficiently high amounts of quality composts and digestate products are produced, because these have shown to be excellent sources of stable organic matter and/or contribute to the soil fertility and food supply.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Effect of Intensity and Time of Aeration on Agrochemical Properties of Extracts from VermicompostDr. Ales Hanc, Pavel Svehla, Pavel Tlustoš
Vermicomposting is a completely environmentally friendly technology which converts biowaste to a value-added product. Extracts from vermicompost can be applied to plant surfaces and soils in ways not possible or economically feasible with solid vermicompost. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of aeration intensity and time of extraction on the agrochemical properties of aqueous extracts from two types of vermicomposts. Vermicomposts were made from horse manure (M) and apple pomace (P) waste.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Effects of different biochars and combined biochar and anaerobic digestate utilization on rye-grass and soil properties in laboratory model experimentMiklós Gulyás, Prof. Dr. Marta Fuchs, Annamaria Holes, Ph.D. Tamás András Szegi, István Kocsis
Recycling of organic wastes and preparation of added value products such as biochar or anaerobic digestate are challenges for a sustainable agriculture. Utilization of biochars to improve soil fertility and to mitigate global climate change is a popular research area. Residual of anaerobic digestion can be used as soil amendment as well, since it contains high amount of different macro-, and micronutrients mainly in water soluble form. Combination of digestate and biochars can cause various interactions, between digestate-biochar and soil system.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Estimation of biologically available heavy metal content of composts by various
extraction methods and ICP-OES multielemental detectionGyörgy Heltai, Ph.D. László Aleksza
The different fractionation protocols may offer different chemical information on biologically available element content of compost, however, only to the BCR sequential extraction scheme is available a sediment type certificated reference material for validation the fractionation procedure. For soils, composts CRM samples are available only for single step extraction or digestion procedures.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Pelletized compost can be a superior alternative to phosphate fertilizer compared to bulk compostYusuke Arakawa
Manure is used as fertilizer and for soil amendment if handled appropriately, although it is the leading source of agricultural pollution if mismanaged. Because of the high water content, long-range haulage is uneconomical. Therefore, manure is mostly applied at high dose, close to the source, thereby diminishing its potential in soil amendment. Composting and pelletization facilitate manure exports, including storage, handling, and transport, for off-farm use and field application.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Effect of compost treatments on the growth of the strain field area of apple trees, and on
the number of fruits per treeAnita Szabo, Andrea Balla Kovács, Dr. Vágó Imre
The effect of different compost doses on the nutrient contents of the soil (in depth of 0-30) were measured in an apple orchards (organic and integrated). Growth of the strain field area of different apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova) and the number of fruits per tree were determined (2010-2012).
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Use of compost from grape pomace as organic amendment for recoverying a decayed pear (Pyrus communis cv Packam’s Triumph) ORCHARDHugo Poblete, Maria M. Martinez, Rodrigo Ortega
During two growing seasons, an experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of mature compost from grape pomace on the recovery of a pear (Pyrus communis L.) orchard. Two treatments (T1: control, T2: Integrated plant nutrition, IPN) were compared. The IPN consisted on the application of 20 ton/ha of compost, together with chemical fertilization of 70 kg N/ha, 20 kg P2O5/ha and 66 kg K2O/ha; the control treatment included only chemical fertilization.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Crop response to alternative organic treatmentsNatasha Mortimer, Dr. Louise A. Fletcher
The aim of the research is to assess the effects of novel wastes, composts and biochar on commercial arable and horticultural crops, and the impact on soil quality. The research will focus on determining the benefits of replacing inorganic fertilisers with novel wastes and compost (such as chicken manure and olive mill waste (OMW)) along with the carbon sequestering properties of biochar.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Sensitivity analysis of a dynamic soil-plant model for simulations of fate of pollutants after repeated applications of amendment on agricultural soilsAgathe Revallier, Jeanne Serre, Philippe Cambier, Stefan Trapp
In 2009, Veolia Environnement Research and Innovation, the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique and the Technical University of Denmark have started a large research cooperation to develop a mathematical model dedicated to the assessment of the fate of organic substances and metals in agricultural soils, after repeated applications of Residual Organic Products (ROP, e.g : sludge, composts). This dynamic model predicts the concentrations of substances in different compartments of the agricultural ecosystem and fluxes in groundwater over time, as a function of approximately a hundred input (physicochemical properties and concentration of substances, environmental conditions, crop characteristics).
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Development of sustainable potting soil based on green compost and other organic recycled materialsBarbara Hoekstra
Although peat is a major component of potting soil, its use is questioned due to ecological constraints. In addition, there is a need for better valorization of green waste compost in Belgium and an increasing consumer awareness of sustainable garden products. Therefore, experiments were set up to develop a sustainable high-quality all-purpose potting soil for the consumer market.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Digestates main characteristics and residual biodegradability: influence of waste origin and management of the digestion plantAnne Trémier
Digestates have to be properly valorized as soil improvers or organic fertilisers in order to ensure good environmental and economic performance of the whole anaerobic digestion treatment scheme. Nevertheless, determinants of the digestates quality and digestates residual biodegradability have raised little interest even as they determine their conditions of storage, use or post-processing. The aim of the present study was thus to propose determinants of digestates quality and to assess their residual biodegradability and its impact in terms of further storage or post-treatment.
ANS e.V. HAWK - Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Fakultät Ressourcenmanagement A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis
Dr. Simon Jeffrey, Frank G.A. Verheijen, M. van der Veldea, A.C. Bastosc
Increased crop yield is a commonly reported benefit of adding biochar to soils. However, experimental results are variable and dependent on the experimental set-up, soil properties and conditions, while causative mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated. A statistical meta-analysis was undertaken with the aim of evaluating the relationship between biochar and crop productivity (either yield or above-ground biomass). Results showed an overall small, but statistically significant, benefit of biochar application to soils on crop productivity, with a grand mean increase of 10%. However, the mean results for each analysis performed within the meta-analysis covered a wide range (from 28% to 39%). The greatest (positive) effects with regard to soil analyses were seen in acidic (14%) and neutral pH soils (13%), and in soils with a coarse (10%) or medium texture (13%). This suggests that two of the main mechanisms for yield increase may be a liming effect and an improved water holding capacity of the soil, along with improved crop nutrient availability. The greatest positive result was seen in biochar applications at a rate of 100 t ha-1 (39%). Of the biochar feedstocks considered and in relation to crop productivity, poultry litter showed the strongest (significant) positive effect (28%), in contrast to biosolids, which were the only feedstock showing a statistically significant negative effect (-28%). However, many auxiliary data sets (i.e. information concerning co-variables) are incomplete and the full range of relevant soil types, as well as environmental and management conditions are yet to be investigated. Furthermore, only shortterm studies limited to periods of 1 to 2 years are currently available. This paper highlights the need for a strategic research effort, to allow elucidation of mechanisms, differentiated by environmental and management factors and to include studies over longer time frames.
Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH - CCLR Geoengineering a Future for Humankind: Some Technical and Ethical ConsiderationsDr. Rafael Leal Arcas, Andrew Filis
The term “geoengineeringâ€ relates to the various strategies and techniques aimed at containing and, in some cases, reversing the effects of anthropogenic and other forms of environmental degradation. These strategies and techniques range from the fairly innocuous to the highly scientifically and politically controversial. Given the transboundary effect of environmental degradation and the urgency that this creates, the concerted efforts of the international community are indispensable to usefully enlist whatever benefits geoengineering is capable of offering. However, serious obstacles stand in the way of the international community acting in unison. This paper seeks to outline the various contentious issues regarding geoengineering that arise in relation to its ethical, technological, political, and trade-related legal dimensions. Along with State actors, it is likely that this field of activity would be highly reliant on market mechanisms to deliver the technological solutions and capital investment that are necessary. Clear rules in relation to how these strategies and techniques ought to be governed are in urgent need. Rules should not be limited to the governance aspects, but should also provide for the commercial use of geoengineering.
PSP - Parlar Scientific Publications Total Mercury and Sequentially Extracted Mercury Fractions in Soil Near a Coal-Fired Power PlantChun-Gang Yuan
Coal-fired power plants are regarded as major anthropogenic pollution sources of Hg. In order to investigate the content of Hg in soil near a coal-fired power plant, soil samples at different depths and distances from the chimney of the power plant were collected. The concentrations of Hg in samples were determined by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometer (CVAFS).
PSP - Parlar Scientific Publications Concentrations and Bioavailability of Potentially Toxic Elements in Soils of an Industrialised Area of Northwestern GreeceGeorgios K. Papastergios, Anestis Filippidis
Thirty eight surface soil samples from the Ptolemais- Kozani basin, northwestern Greece were collected and analysed for their content in twenty three elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, V, Y and Zn) by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The concentrations of these elements were compared with three international guidelines and the results indicated that Cr and Ni are found enriched in the surface soils of the study area, mainly as a consequence of natural processes, namely the weathering of surrounding rocks such as ophiolites. Moreover, the bioavailability of some of these elements was tested and results indicate that they do not pose an immediate threat to the environment as it all demonstrated values below 1%.