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Biological Treatment

2-Stage Wet Fermentation Plant in Kirchstockach, Germany.

The representative average molecular formula, excluding nitrogen and other minor components, of biodegradable waste is C6H10O4. In Europe, this type of waste comprises some 50 – 65 percent of the waste composition and has average water content between 15 – 70 percent. Depending on the water content, the biodegradable waste can be divided into two groups: dry organic waste (e.g. yard waste, textiles, dry organic production waste, wood) and wet organic waste (e.g. food and canteen waste, fruits and vegetables, wet and liquid organic production waste).

Energy from the wet organic waste fraction can be obtained by fermenting it to produce biogas and then combusting the biogas to generate renewable energy or treating it to produce bio methane. During the fermentation process microorganisms decompose the available organic matter, reducing the volume and producing compost. The fermentation produces mainly CH4 and CO2 gas and a compost product suitable after further treatment as a soil enhancer.

Depending on the water content in the digester, the anaerobic digestion process can be classified into wet and dry fermentation. Wet fermentation refers to total solid content in the Digestor with less than 12 percent of dry matter, while dry fermentation refers to digester feed with 30 percent of dry matter or more.

Other biological treatment processes are the production of biochar or liquid fuel as well as composting.

See Also

Anaerobic Digestion Process
Mechanical Biological Treatment - MBT
Batch Dry Fermentation
Wet Anaerobic Digestion Plant
Refuse Derived Fuels - solid recovered fuels for the cement industry
Liquid Fuel
MBT Warsaw, Poland
Professional articles about: waste collection, recycling, biological treatment,  saving energy by smart production with raw materials etc.

Tlowprocess AD for chicken manure
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
concept of mono Fermentation of chicken dung and slaughterhouse waste

Optimization of preparation of new activated carbons from olive waste via sequential hydrothermal carbonization and activation with KOH and steam
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
Present study aimed to obtain higher quality of activated carbon (ACs) from olive waste (OW) through successive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and activation.

High-quality biogenic silica from agricultural residues
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
The objectives of this paper are to present some interim results of an ongoing Project and to shortly introduce the scope of the project and the partners.

Separation of contraries during the treatment of biowaste prior to wet fermentation
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
An efficient biological treatment of source separated organic waste from household
kitchens and gardens (biowaste) requires an adequate upfront mechanical preparation. This typically includes a separation of physical, non-organic contaminants like glass, plastics, etc. which otherwise might end up in the compost or digest.

Creation of a resource cadastre in the residential building sector
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
To estimate the material quantities of the residential building stock various Research dealt with the detailed material composites of a building and with creating typical material values for building typologies.

Waste stream treatment for obtaining safe reclaimed water and biomethane for transport sector to mitigate GHG emissions
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
The aim of the LIFE+ Methamorphosis project is to recover energy from organic solid waste from both urban and agricultural livestock sources to obtain alternative and sustainable fuels.

Reuse of building components
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
Cities and buildings are urban mines for raw materials and bind large quantities of valuable resources for various periods of time. In addition to the common recycling
activities, primarily for mineral construction residues, a market for well-preserved 2nd hand structural components and materials is emerging.

Recovery of critical resources from production waste of the specialised glass industry by gas-phase reaction
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
Glasses from the optical specialised glass industry often contain considerable amounts of rare earth elements (REE) like Lanthanum and Yttrium. These are usually bound in the shape of a silicate matrix.
Despite a selective mechanical treatment an additional chemical treatment, is necessary to selectively separate such elements from the matrix.

Production of activated carbons from biomass waste for environmental applications
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
The production of activated carbon from olive residue using carbon dioxide is studied in a new microreactor system.

Management of contraries in biogenic waste
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
Contraries in biogenic waste have been a well-known phenomenon since the source separation began about 25 years ago. The various stakeholders influencing the Content of contraries in biogenic waste are discussed.

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