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Landfilling in Europe

In the European Union, Directive 1999/31/EC on Landfill of Waste is one of the most important waste policies; the objective of the Directive is to prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on surface water, groundwater, soil, air and human health from the landfilling of waste. The Directive establishes stringent technical requirements for the authorization, design, operation, closure and aftercare of landfills, specific targets for 2006, 2009 and 2016 in the reduction of biodegradable fractions of MSW going to landfill, as well as the prohibition of materials to be accepted in landfills.

With approximately 45 percent of the total municipal waste sent to landfills, landfilling is still EU’s predominating waste management activity (Figure 1). A big difference exists between the landfilling statistics between EU-15 and EU-10 member states. While about 80 percent of the MSW is sent to landfills in the new member states, in the old member states this number goes down below 40 percent.

Treatment_of_municipal_waste_in_Euope_a_comparison_between_data_from_1995_and_2005

Figure 1: Treatment of municipal waste in Euope, a comparison between data from 1995 and 2005 [EFTA: European Free Trade Association; EECCA: Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia] (Eurostat 2007)

All new EU members are forced to transpose European Legislation into their national waste laws. By doing so, the EU-10 members will follow the EU-15 trend in the future years and reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills as well as regulating the type of waste that is sent to landfills. The new member states are expected to advance on their waste management techniques and decrease the use of landfills.


See Also


Landfill Gas Utilization
 
Professional articles about: landfills on their way to gas utilisation and renaturation
 

A New Methodical Approach for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Related to MSW Landfills in Russia
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Nowadays, the most widespread method of MSW disposal in Russia is landfilling, using the most primitive landfilling technology. On an average, only 3-4 % of municipal solid waste is recycled, but the majority of waste is taken to dumps — there are about 11 thousand in Russia with an area of more than 11,000 hectares of land. About 82 billion tons of waste is buried in them. This fact requires that a full-fledged and accurate assessment of this activity and its influence on Environment has to be carried out before its implementation.

Reducing Leachate Treatment Costs, But How?
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Leachate processing at landfills places significant demands on process technology. Landfill leachate contains a cocktail of various pollutants. In addition to biodegradable nitrogen compounds, this also includes a large number of other organic and inorganic pollutant groups that are fully or partially non-biodegradable. These substances have to be removed from the landfill leachate through cost-intensive physicochemical treatment. The requirements placed on the treated leachate depend on the way it is discharged. Legal framework specifications define the limits for direct or indirect dischargers.

Sequential Extraction as a Method for Analysis of Heavy Metals Mobility in Soils
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Polluted soil with metals could affect human health through direct contact with soil, but potentially greater threats could rise, for example, from infiltration of the metals into groundwater aquifers or by the plant uptake of those. The hazard in soil attributable to metals is often assessed by determination of their total content or pseudo-total content in soil.

Resource Recovery from Waste Using the Input Flexibility of Waste Gasification Technology
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Nowadays, gasification of waste or biomass is becoming the great interest all over the world. Especially, gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been well-researched in Japan. The development of MSW gasification technology was started in the 1970s in Japan because of oil crisis. Several technologies have been researched and developed. The Direct Melting System (DMS), which is the gasification and melting technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., is one of the developed waste gasification technologies in this era. This technology was introduced for commercial use in Kamaishi City, Japan in 1979. As well as this waste technology, other gasification technologies have been developed for commercial use and installed.

Innovative Application Methods of Slags from High-Temperature-Gasifying-and-Direct-Melting System
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
JFE High-Temperature Gasifying and Direct Melting Furnace System (hereinafter Gasifying and Melting System) was developed to treat any kind of wastes and to contribute to energy and material recovery. Gasifying and Melting System was developed by integrating company’s original technologies for the iron-making blast furnace and fluidized bed for incineration plants, which the company cultivated over many years. The company’s advanced technologies in these two different fields were combined and integrated into the unique Gasifying and Melting System. This system is a proven technology that realizes high performance

Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Comparison of MBT plants with and without upstream Anaerobic Digestion (AD) in terms of moisture Management and achievement of landfill disposal criteria
© Wasteconsult international (6/2015)
In waste industry the trend has developed to treat municipal solid waste (MSW) within an anaerobic digestion process. For this purpose MBT plants with an upstream AD plant were built. In the context of plant monitoring and trials one MBT with AD and one MBT without AD were examined and compared to determine the impact of the AD process. For this, the plant operation, especially the moisture management, the compliance of the landfill criteria and also the economic efficiency of the MBT were investigated.

MBT demonstration project in Tunisia
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
Tunisian waste is rich in organic and hence fairly wet. This causes technical Problems and adverse environmental effects when landfilled. But next to the formation of leachate and landfill gas also operation problems were observed especially at pit landfills because of unsufficient drainage of the leachate which resulted in situations that the whole waste is soaked with leachate and hence the mechanical stability is reduced. The main objective of the pilot test was to prove that the PMB is a feasible solution for the conditions in Tunisia and an adequate option to overcome some of the Problems mentioned above.

MBT Ljubljana: In Slovenia arises one of the largest and most modern plants in Europe
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The new MBT in Slovenia’s capital gets ready to become one of the largest and most modern waste treatment plants in Europe. It will produce biogas, recover heat and power as well as SRF and other recyclable products while avoiding landfilling. The new facility is implemented into the existing waste management centre of Ljubljana.

3D-Geospatial Data using Unmanned Airborne Vehicles
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The use of aerial images for 3D-geospatial information extraction is a known and precise technology. This technology, called photogrammetry, finds application also in Monitoring tasks of landfill sites. One obtains 3D-geospatial information such as volumes, terrain models, profiles, or contours all of which describe the area in a particular way, either for planning or for documentation purposes. Typically, one associates the capturing of aerial images with use of manned aircraft equipped with large format – nowadays digital – aerial camera systems. As aircrafts serve either fixed wing airplanes or Rotary wing aircrafts.

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