TK Verlag Karl Thomé-Kozmiensky Optimization of Plant Operation by Means of Technical ServiceMichael Mück
The who sticks his head in the sand today, has grit in his teeth tomorrow. There is no reason
to designate. The large number of successful realized project shows that a trustful partnership between plant operator and owner and right skilled partners is the right foundation for the implementation of optimization and development projects. The success speaks for itself.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft New Waste-to-Energy Facility Energy Works Hull, United KingdomAdam Shore
Energy Works Hull (the Project) is a milestone project for the UK’s waste and renewable energy sector. It will be one of the largest gasification facilities receiving MSW in the UK, indeed in Europe. It is one of the first advanced conversion technology Projects to receive its renewable electricity subsidies through a Contract for Difference, the mechanism by which the UK Government determined to move from Renewable Obligation Certificates following its Electricity Market Reform process. It also plays a significant part of the urban regeneration of the City of Hull. The level of community engagement and benefit has resulted in the project receiving a GBP19.9M grant from the European Union’s Regional Development Fund.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Enhancing of the Energy Efficiency of an Existing Waste Incineration Plant by Retrofitting with a District Heating NetworkProf. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Rommel, Thorsten Freudenberger, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Markus Hertel, Thomas Moritz
The German Cycle Economy Act (Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz KrWG) and discussions on the turn of local energy policies led to intensive examination of options for optimising utilisation of heat produced by the waste incineration plant (MKW) in Weißenhorn. This has been carried out by the waste management firm(Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb – AWB) of the district of Neu-Ulm over a long period of time. This was also prompted by knowledge that utilisation of already generated energy in the form of combined heat and power generation (CHP) is one of the most efficient ways of achieving climate protection targets. This results from considering which courses of action are available for climate protection.
Experts to topic
Michael Buchheit HEINZ Entsorgung GmbH & Co. KG
Dr. Oliver Gohlke Dublix Technology Aps
Gerhard Meier Zweckverband Müllverwertungsanlage Ingolstadt
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft International Experience of Risks Sharing between Public and Private Entities in Energy-from-Waste Plants ConstructionChristophe Cord´Homme
Imagine that you are the mayor of a city named Metropolis and are in Charge of School logistics. Before doing so, you might have to ask yourself a few essential questions. What kind of transportation will you provide? Who will it benefit: students, staff or both? Where will the service be provided? When will it be provided: in the evening, morning? And finally, how much will it cost? All these essential questions need to be answered before starting to implement this project and to buy your buses. By doing so, planning, financing, building and operating the chosen mean of Transportation will become an easier task. After that, your political decisions will direct the choice of implication of private sector on the different aspects of your project.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Regenerative Thermal Oxidation in the Cement Industry – Technology and Operation –Thomas Binninger, Dr. Kai Schulze
The cement industry plays a pivotal role in meeting society’s needs for housing and infrastructure. Cement is one of the most important and widely used commodities in the world and is therefore a key ingredient of economic development. Current world production of cement is well above 4,500 million tons per year and growing.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft The Added Value of the Balance Method for Waste-to-Energy Operators and National AuthoritiesDipl.-Ing. Dr. Johann Fellner, Professor Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Helmut Rechberger, Therese Schwarzböck
Different directives of the European Union may require operators of Waste to Energy WTE plants to monitor the composition of their waste feed with respect to the Content of biomass and fossil organic matter. The mass fractions of both materials are not only of relevance for the amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions of the plant, but also for the ratio of renewable energy generated, as biomass in wastes is considered as renewable energy source.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft The Market for Mechanical Biological Waste Treatment Plants in EuropeDipl.-Geogr. Mark Döing
Both the number and capacities of mechanical biological treatment plants (MBT plants) have increased significantly in the past years. In late 2015, about 490 MBT plants were active in Europe, reaching a disposal capacity of circa 47 million annual tons. However, despite its steady growth, the MBT market showed volatility. The market development peaked in 2005/2006, with the commissioning of about 80 plants with a capacity of circa 9 million annual tons. In 2015, about 13 new facilities with a capacity of around 2.2 million annual tons went online. The MBT market has also shifted geographically, because the European countries have started implementing the EU Landfill Directive in different years. After MBT plants had mainly been constructed in Southern Europe, Germany and Austria before 2006, investments shifted towards the UK and more recently, towards Eastern Europe. In the coming years, an ambivalent development is expected. Whereas further MBT plants will be constructed in countries still sending large shares of their MSW to landfills, MBT technology will experience increasing pressure in the countries with low landfilling shares.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Application of Modified NiCrMo Alloy Systems for Boiler Tube Surface Protection in Waste-to-Energy EnvironmentsIain Hall, Kwang Han, Dr. Tri Shrestha
Internationally, Waste to Energy and Incineration markets continue to grow in capacity as fossil fueled facilities decline and nuclear generation is curtailed. With this comes a greater need to burn more corrosive materials combust at higher temperatures and extract more energy. The reliability burden that this places on operators of plants is re-opening opportunities for thermal spray solutions as a cost effective solution for boiler tube protection. Where maintenance costs, opportunity costs and access restrictions may preclude alternative in-situ technologies, thermal spray technology may fill a gap in providing new reliable and flexible process and materials technologies for both mid- and long-term protection of water wall and superheater tubes. While historically thermal spray coating solutions have had a spotty record in waste to energy environments, advances in both process and materials technology specifically for WTE environments is such that coating performance now approaches the performance of high alloy wrought materials. This is verified through accurate laboratory modeling and scale tests and trials conducted by OEM’s and plants.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Significance of and Challenges for Flue Gas Treatment Systems in Waste IncinerationProfessor Dr.-Ing. Rudi Karpf, Andreas Wiedl
Flue gas cleaning downstream of waste incineration plants had its origins in the increased construction and deployment of such plants to counter rising air pollution in the nineteen-sixties. Back then, the ever-growing burden on the environment caused lawmakers to start enacting emission limits for air pollution control. An unceasing series of environmental scandals and increasingly better analytical methods and measuring instrumentation led to a constant reduction of the emission limits and, consequently, to ongoing adjustment and further development of the necessary process stages in flue gas cleaning. As a result, today minimum emissions can be reached even under the challenging condition of deployment of a very inhomogeneous fuel (waste) and, hence, waste incineration today is no longer a key contributor to air pollution. Today, the need for flue gas cleaning is not called into doubt anymore and has long become a matter of course in the industry and in society at large. Apart from ensuring efficient elimination of noxious gases, the focus of today’s further developments is on issues such as energy efficiency, minimization of input materials and recovery and recycling of by-products from flue gas cleaning as valuable raw materials. These issues are also deemed to be key challenges, especially when it comes to selecting sites for new plants in such a manner that potential synergies can be exploited. Such aspects will also have to be considered in the plans for the predicted mega-cities of the future.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Innovative Application Methods of Slags from High-Temperature-Gasifying-and-Direct-Melting SystemMasato Katafuchi, Prof. Stanislaw Stryczek, Radoslaw Mróz, Wojciech Wons
JFE High-Temperature Gasifying and Direct Melting Furnace System (hereinafter Gasifying and Melting System) was developed to treat any kind of wastes and to contribute to energy and material recovery. Gasifying and Melting System was developed by integrating company’s original technologies for the iron-making blast furnace and fluidized bed for incineration plants, which the company cultivated over many years. The company’s advanced technologies in these two different fields were combined and integrated into the unique Gasifying and Melting System. This system is a proven technology that realizes high performance
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Complex Approach towards the Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants’ Future PotentialDr. Martin Pavlas, Ondrej Putna, Jiri Kropác, Professor Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Petr Stehlik
There is a fierce debate ongoing about future recycling targets for municipal solid waste (MSW) at the European level. The old linear concept of waste management is being changed into a circular economy. Since the separation yield and post-recycling MSW (later on residual solid waste, RSW) production have an opposite relationship, assuming the constant production of particular components (paper, plastics etc.), lower RSW rates are also expected. This is having a negative effect on Waste-to-energy (WtE); especially in terms of its future optimum capacity in particular countries.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Overview of the Pyrolysis and Gasification Processes for Thermal Disposal of WasteDr. Jürgen Vehlow
Thermal treatment of waste started in the 1870s in England with the first waste incineration plants and this technology was in short time adopted by many industrialised countries. Starting in the late 1970s waste incineration was blamed for emission of toxic compounds, in particular of dioxins, and public pressure initiated the decree of more and more stringent air emission standards in all countries which, again, induced significant improvement of the environmental performance of waste incineration.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Manufacturing of Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) for Energy Recovery ProcessesDipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Renato Sarc, Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karl E. Lorber, Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger
This contribution describes manufacturing processes and quality of three types of
Solid Recovered Fuels – i.e. SRF low quality, SRF medium quality and SRF premium
quality – that are used in energy recovery plants. In total, two case studies are reported.
First case study is about the external processing and confectioning of non-hazardous
household, industrial and commercial mixed wastes as well as the internal treatment
and homogenisation of various waste fractions at the incineration plant for production
of SRF low quality that is utilized in a Waste to Energy (WtE) stationary Fluidized Bed
Incinerator. In the second case study, production of SRF medium quality and SRF premium
quality that are used for substitution of primary fuels like coal and petrol coke
in the cement kiln is described. Finally, data on SRF quality of all three investigated
waste types will be summarized and discussed.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Resource Recovery from Waste Using the Input Flexibility of Waste Gasification TechnologyNobuhiro Tanigaki, Ryo Makishi, Toshimi Nagata
Nowadays, gasification of waste or biomass is becoming the great interest all over the world. Especially, gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been well-researched in Japan. The development of MSW gasification technology was started in the 1970s in Japan because of oil crisis. Several technologies have been researched and developed. The Direct Melting System (DMS), which is the gasification and melting technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., is one of the developed waste gasification technologies in this era. This technology was introduced for commercial use in Kamaishi City, Japan in 1979. As well as this waste technology, other gasification technologies have been developed for commercial use and installed.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Modelling of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) Properties Based on Material Composition – Chloride QualityInnes Deans, Ioannis Dimas, Costas Velis
Producing solid recovered fuels (SRF) is a well-established route for recovering energy resources from municipal solid waste (household and/or commercial). Chloride content critically impacts the quality of SRF. It directly influences operation of thermal processes, having deleterious effects through the high temperature corrosion of the boilers and through demands placed on the flue gas treatment (FGT) system, which could impact emissions control. Whereas design and specification of process plant can mitigate the technical issues associated with the presence of chloride experienced during thermal treatment, processing such fuels is associated with increased capital, operating and maintenance costs. This, at best, restricts the uptake/use of SRF or increases the cost of its treatment towards achieving a reduced chloride content.
Wasteconsult international Recommendations for the Limitation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Open Windrow Composting FacilitiesDr. Jürgen Reinhold
In 2006, the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) commissioned Ingenieurgesellschaft für Wissenstransfer GmbH (gewitra) in Troisdorf to carry out a study entitled "Determination of the Emission Situation of Biowaste Recovery Activities“ (UFOPLAN 2006, FKZ: 206 33 326). The findings of this study were complemented by additional assessments in a follow-up study "Determination of the Emission Situation of Anaerobic Biowaste Digestion Facilities and Determination of the Emission Situation of Biowaste Recovery in Open Composting Facilities" (UFOPLAN 2009, FKZ: 3709 44 320) likewise carried out by Ingenieurgesellschaft für Wissenstransfer GmbH, Troisdorf. The results of these two studies characterize the current state of the knowledge on greenhouse gas emissions from biowaste treatment activities.
Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben Development of an Ecodesign Tool for the Aircraft IndustryAnn-Kathrin Wimmer, Torsten Müller
Each year over 2.2 billion passengers travel by plane. Over the next 20 years an increase of 4-5 % per annum is predicted combined with a doubling in the commercial aircraft fleet until 2050. The challenge is to meet the growth in an environmental friendly way.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. The artefacts map for waste treatment plants - working optimization for laboratories with fermentation unitsDipl.-Ing. Laura Weitze
The optimization of workflows ensures efficiency of processes. Especially in waste treatment for the warranty of same boundary conditions coordinated work processes are required. This includes the use of measurement technology, the use of evaluation methods and the exchange of knowledge between stakeholders. The artifacts map documented object-specific information of individual objects, connecting footpath and interaction patterns on the job. Therefore, different test people and their handling with artifacts should be observed in their everyday work.
bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH bifa-Text No. 62: Ecoefficiency analysis of photovoltaic modules / english versionMatthias Seitz, Dr. Malgorzata Kroban, Dipl.- Ing. Thorsten Pitschke, Dr. Siegfried Kreibe
The study by the bifa environmental institute describes a future-orientated view of the ecological and economic effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems along their whole life cycle.
DGAW - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Abfallwirtschaft e.V. Mass Flow Analysis and Economic Evaluation of Informal Sector ActivitiesUlrike Lange, Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h.c. Bernd Bilitewski
The thesis will analyze mass flows and estimate corresponding monetary flows in three different key areas: Rio, Brazil; Delhi, India; Germany-Poland. A focus is put on formal and informal amounts, impacts on recycling quotas, advantages and disadvantages for waste management systems, legal barriers, political incentives and economic drivers to regulate informal activities and find differences and common grounds regarding waste management systems. The current contribution highlights the economic drivers and incentives that cause informal activities and presents results regarding the informal sector in Germany.
AIRE (Adapting and installing an international vocational training for renewable energy) 3. Other Forms of Energy, EQF 3
Which knowledge, skills and competences does an AIRE specialist need as far as usual forms of energy are concerned?
AIRE (Adapting and installing an international vocational training for renewable energy) 3. Other Forms of Energy, EQF 4
Which knowledge, skills and competences does an AIRE specialist need as far as usual forms of energy are concerned?
WtERT USA , Columbia University, EarthEngineering Center PART A: MSW Management in the City of Buenos Aires, Argentina and Potential for a Waste-To-Energy Plant. PART B: Upgrading Low BTU Fuels to Reduce Emissions in Internal Combustion Engines.Natali Ganfer
PART A: Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a major concern for most Argentinean municipalities. The population of most Argentinean municipalities is constantly increasing. As a result of the increase, the cities’ borders constantly expand and this results to ever increasing land prices in areas closer to the city. These factors coupled with a population who refuse to have waste management facilities located near their houses (phenomenon known as “not in my backyardâ€), results in landfills located further and further away from population centers. The City of Buenos Aires (CBA or the City) and its metropolitan area were selected as the subject of the present analysis on SWM for its critical role in Argentinean MSW disposal. This area generates 40% of the total MSW of the country. The Accesso Norte III landfill is utilized to dispose of 90% of this waste i.e. 36% of the country’s MSW is expected to reach its full capacity in 2012.
NMC Ltd. Economical and environmental comparison of different collection and treatment of municipal solid waste according to life cycle assessmentZsolt István
In the beginning of 21th century there was a huge dynamic change in the practice of the solid waste management. Earlier the collected solid municipal waste went directly to the landfills without any treatment. Nowadays, we have different technologies to ensure the high recycling ratio in the solid waste treatment.
WtERT USA , Columbia University, EarthEngineering Center Monitoring of dioxins and other POPs in a grate furnace WTE combusting household waste; and in a fluidized bed WTE co-combusting RDF/ASR and sludgeProf. Carlo Vandecasteele
Deutscher Fachverlag (DFV) Waste disposal strategy for better quality of life: Asia and Europe in search of solutions for controlled waste managementBritta Rollert
The largely unregulated waste management poses grave problems in many Asian cities. The need to organize waste management systematically and communicate this to people requires a lot of awareness training, good networking, a clear focus on results and a great deal of patience. Key individuals on all levels must be involved in order to increase acceptance among the population. The Technologie-Transfer-Zentrum, ttz (Technology Transfer Centre, ttz) in Bremerhaven, Germany, is aiming to develop and locally implement a realizable model
with 21 partners from Europe and Asia, within the EU project ISSOWAMA (Integrated Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Asia). The project was officially launched in Bangkok on February 11 and 12.
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki - Lab. of Heat Transfer & Environmental Engineering Environmentally focused production and distribution supply chain network structuresP. Tsiakis, Vasiliki Manakou, Theodosios Tsiakis
Enterprise optimisation can rapidly strip significant “bottom lineâ€ costs out ofglobal operations, giving companies a real competitive edge. Traditionally, the main objective of such optimisation models and methods has been to maximise the financial benefits by integrating operational, design and cost decisions. Over the last decade there has been a growing concern for the environmental impact of design and operational decisions.