a second way of energy recovery is at the beginning
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TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Innovative Application Methods of Slags from High-Temperature-Gasifying-and-Direct-Melting SystemMasato Katafuchi, Prof. Stanislaw Stryczek, Radoslaw Mróz, Wojciech Wons
JFE High-Temperature Gasifying and Direct Melting Furnace System (hereinafter Gasifying and Melting System) was developed to treat any kind of wastes and to contribute to energy and material recovery. Gasifying and Melting System was developed by integrating company’s original technologies for the iron-making blast furnace and fluidized bed for incineration plants, which the company cultivated over many years. The company’s advanced technologies in these two different fields were combined and integrated into the unique Gasifying and Melting System. This system is a proven technology that realizes high performance
Wasteconsult international Landfill mining option: MBT role and landfill potential dangerDr.-Ing. Dipl. Elena Cristina Rada, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Marco Ragazzi, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Vincenzo Torretta, Ing. Giorgia Passamani
The use of landfills for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has many technical and regulatory limits. An interesting solution is to recover the bales that have been previously stored in a landfill. After specific mechanical biological treatments (MBT), the contents of the bales can be used to produce a solid recovered fuel (SRF) that can be used for energy purposes. The possibility of producing SRF fuels from a landfill in northern Italy has been studied and is presented in this paper. The MSW extracted from the landfill, the bio-dried material produced by the waste hypothetically treated in a plant for bio-drying, and the SRF obtained after the extraction of inert materials, metals and glass from the bio-dried material have been characterized. Assessed the waste nature, the potential environmental impact of dioxin release from a possible landfill fire has been analysed, applying the Austal2000 model system.
Wasteconsult international MBT demonstration project in TunisiaThouraya Chantou, Ayman Elnaas, Dr.-Ing. Abdallah Nassour, Bernd Hasel, Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Pfaff-Simoneit
Tunisian waste is rich in organic and hence fairly wet. This causes technical Problems and adverse environmental effects when landfilled. But next to the formation of leachate and landfill gas also operation problems were observed especially at pit landfills because of unsufficient drainage of the leachate which resulted in situations that the whole waste is soaked with leachate and hence the mechanical stability is reduced. The main objective of the pilot test was to prove that the PMB is a feasible solution for the conditions in Tunisia and an adequate option to overcome some of the Problems mentioned above.
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Antonis Mavropoulos D-Waste
Prof. Stefano Consonni Department of Energy Engineering, Politecnico di Milano
Stefan Meisinger ia GmbH - Wissensmanagement und Ingenieurleistungen
Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben Life History of the Leoben Waste Landfill Site - Twentyfive Years of Operation – Hundred Years of SustainabilityAlfred Krenn
During the first half of the 20th century, several different dumping sites, distributed in two different town districts of Leoben, were used for the disposal of collected municipal solid waste.
Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben RoadMap - Mapping in Case of Landfill MiningDr. Jörg Nispel, Prof. Dr. habil. Stefan A. Gäth
Raw materials such as steel and energy are becoming scarcer due to the steady growth of the world population and the resulting consumption change. Hence, it is to be expected that the Prices of primary and secondary raw materials will rise in future even more than present.
Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben Material Recycling of Polyolefin-Rich Plastic FractionsMarkus Lehner, Wolfgang Hofer
The material recycling of plastic waste has still an enormous potential, even in countries like Austria or Germany, which have a highly developed waste treatment system. At the moment, approximately 2/3 of the utilized packaging plastics are treated thermally, i.e. as waste derived fuels, and only 1/3 are routed for material recycling.
Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben Utilization of Treated Solid Waste Combustion Residues in Reconstruction and Vertical Air Space Extension of LandfillsDipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Renato Sarc, Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karl E. Lorber, Dipl.-Ing. Dr.mont MScTox Klaus Werner Wruss, Karl Reiselhuber
In this contribution, the utilization of processed MSWI – combustion residues (i.e. bottom ash & slags) for the reconstruction of landfi lls during vertical expansion of airspace is reported. It is shown, that from 250 kg/tonMSW bottom ash generated during combustion, 6 – 7 % FE-metals, 1 – 2 % NON-FE metals and over 90 % minerals (mainly a mixture of CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and Silicates) can be recovered in a processing plant. Using the so called „Concrete Stabilized Perimeter Berm“ method, where parts of the mineral fraction are mixed with cement, sand and water to form concrete for slope construction during the vertical airspace expansion, slope steepening from 1(V): 3 (H) to 2(V) : 3 (H) with simultaneous increase of landfill height from 30 m-45m can be achieved, resulting in airspace gaining.
Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben Landfill Mining – Case Study: Resource Potential of a Styrian Sanitary Landfill SiteDI Dr. Tanja Wolfsberger, Dr. Daniel Höllen, Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Renato Sarc, Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger, Ing. Andreas Zöscher
During the last years, noticeable changes in the availability of mineral raw materials (e.g. ores, coal) were observed due to an enormous raw material demand of developing countries (e.g. China). Subsequently, a sensible scarcity of raw materials, highly competitive markets and a significant aggravated accessibility to mineral resources have been noticed.
PSP - Parlar Scientific Publications Influence of Mycorrhizal Fungi on Remediation of Soil Contaminated by Petroleum HydrocarbonsJoanna Kalka
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can play an important role in phytoremediation by improving plant establishment and growth on soils contaminated by anorganics as well as organics. The benefits of AMF to plants are often related to increased nutrition and water uptake as well as enhanced tolerance to environmental stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of remediation techniques (plant cultivation, bacterial inoculation, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation) on petroleum contaminated soil.
NMC Ltd. Sustainable re-use of closed landfills in the EUMSc. Herbert Kers, Harm Ritsema, Ing. Andrea Gizická
Closed landfills take up a considerable amount of space in many countries. It is estimated that there are up to 150,000 closed landfills in Europe. Many locations are situated near the edge of cities and villages. In terms of efficient space usage, closed landfills can provide alternative locations for companies, offices, golf courses, city parks or ski runs, for greenhouse farming or the cultivation of forests. However, many closed landfills may also pose a risk to the environment or public health.
Deutscher Fachverlag (DFV) Hard work for the microbes: Soil remediation in a tank farmDr. Thomas Caro, Dr. Thomas Berger
In a tank farm in Belém (Brazil) the soil was found to be highly contaminated. With the help of a biological process this soil is remediated by microbes and then reused at the site. Because the process was originally developed in Germany, it had to be adapted to suit the local climate. The entire operating crew are subject to the tank farm's technical safety regulations, which comply with international standards and are strictly implemented.
Deutscher Fachverlag (DFV) Investigations of Site-Contaminations in China: Initial Site-Contamination-Investigation and -Remediation in ChinaBoris Jacoby
Currently in China there is proceeding a serious intensification of the environmental law relating to future critical limit values and the obligation of accompanying measures. Also in China the assessment of possible financial relevant features of sites like hazardous waste contaminations and groundwater pollution is becoming more important. Nowerdays, the investigation concerning contaminations of sites in China is becoming necessary and interesting for German investors. Meanwhile, in the course of all-embracing Due-Diligence-examinations for site assessments in China for a German investor the R&H Umwelt GmbH from Nuremberg/Germany (R&H) already has performed several initial site-contamination-investigations including the initial investigation of the building-substance on industrial sites.
European Compost Network ECN e.V. Greenhouse gas emission reduction by aerobic treatment of old landfillsProf. Dr.-Ing Gerhard Rettenberger
Old landfill have a big contribution to greenhouse gas emissions an should be treated in the future worldwide to avoidlandfill gas emissions. Even in industrialized countries old landfills have a big contribution to the greenhouse effect.
IWWG International Waste Working Group Sustainable landfill: the role of fail-safe engineering for landfill aftercareD.H. Hall, Dr. John McDougall, D. Drury, Nick Blakey, P. Braithwaite
The route to sustainable landfill while adhering to the Landfill Directive requires that ultimately, the waste site will reach equilibrium status. Chemical equilibrium is part of the requirements, but hydraulic equilibrium must also play a role. The research described in this paper was examined the behaviour of a waste site as it approaches the end of its managed postclosure period. In particular, the possibility of leachate overtopping, and the balance between risk to groundwater (from high leachate heads acting on the liner system) and to surface water has been assessed. Passive fail-safe engineering is not related to uncontrolled or un-consented abandonment but requires careful prediction of the way the pre-installed features control the approach to equilibrium after active management ends.
IWWG International Waste Working Group State of the art and perspectives for sustainable landfillingdr.ir. T.J. Heimovaara, Raffaello Cossu, Dr Hans A. Van der Sloot
Landfill science has shown a significant shift from a strong emphasis on isolation technologies towards obtaining a fundamental understanding of processes occurring in landfill bodies. One of the main reasons for this shift in thinking is the realization that isolation technologies alone cannot guarantee long-term protection of the environment. In addition we more and more realize that in order to have a equally prosperous society in the future it is necessary to find ways of sustainable development. The fundamental idea of sustainability is not to burden future generations with problems created by previous generations. Considering the issue of sustainable development, landfilling poses a significant challenge.
IWWG International Waste Working Group Inorganic waste landfill and final storage qualityHeijo Scharff, Joeri Jacobs, Dr Hans A. Van der Sloot, Andre Van Zomeren
Terms as ‘landfill stability’ and ‘final storage quality’ are very often used in discussions about sustainable landfill. Internationally accepted definitions are not available. Consequently there is also no shared notion of sustainable landfill. In a Dutch sustainable landfill project it was proposed that: ‘a landfill is stable when the undisturbed contents do no longer pose a threat to the environment in any way’. Clearly the potential threat does not only depend on the landfill but also on the environment. This paper argues that the method used to establish the acceptance criteria for waste on landfills in the Annex II of the European Landfill Directive provides a starting point for the development of a risk assessment method. Such a risk assessment method is necessary to support completion and surrender of landfills. It also helps the evaluation of landfill sustainability.
IWWG International Waste Working Group Case study of application of the in situ aeration on an old landfill: results and perspectivesRaffaello Cossu, Roberto Raga, Davide Rossetti, Silvia Cestaro
In situ aeration on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills enables the stabilization of waste by means of aerobic conditions established by air injection into the landfill body. In the last years several experiences of lab, pilot and full scale applications have been carried out worldwide. A full scale application of the in situ aeration by means of the Airflow technology has been carried out at the old MSW landfill of Legnago in northern Italy.
IWWG International Waste Working Group Prediction and reduction of the duration of landfill aftercareO. Hjelmar, Jonas Nedenskov
A project is being carried out to establish and validate tools which can be used to predict and possibly also influence (reduce) the duration of the aftercare period for modern landfills and to estimate the associated costs.
IWWG International Waste Working Group Aerobic in situ stabilization of landfills: long-term experience and new developmentsDr.-Ing. Kai-Uwe Heyer, Dr.-Ing. Karsten Hupe, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rainer Stegmann, Dipl.-Ing. Astrid Koop
The in situ stabilization of old deposits aims for a lasting and controlled reduction of pollutant emissions from the deposited waste in order to diminish expenditure and the duration of landfill aftercare measures. At three landfills in Germany the stabilization operation over a period of 4 – 6 years was completed successfully.
IWWG International Waste Working Group Closure practice and after-care of sanitary landfill sites critical remarks from two decades of practical experienceDr. Winfried Entenmann, Jörg Schelling, Dipl.-Ing. ; Dipl.-Ing. Uwe Dölemeyer
Experience from landfill reclamation in the past leads to a critical assessment of measures, usually thought to be necessary for the long-lasting and sustainable behaviour of MSW landfills. In order to obtain minimum time for after-care, emphasis should be laid on the continuous stabilization of the waste body.
IWWG International Waste Working Group Reassessment of risk upon in situ aerobic stabilization of old landfillsP.E. Chris Richgels, Mark Hudgins
This paper assesses when application of the threat reduction technology would be appropriate at legacy landfills and presents such application for a proposed aerobic application at a legacy site in central California.
IWWG International Waste Working Group Geotechnical characterization of wasteDr. Cor Zwanenburg, Johan G. Knoeff, Micheline W.A. Hounjet
Near Maastricht, The Netherlands, urban development on a waste disposal site is planned. Since building on a waste disposal site is relatively new geotechnical based risk management approach has been adopted for the feasibility study of the urban development. It was found that settlement of the landfill and stability of the slope imposes the largest risks to the project. Camera probe measurements and large-scale laboratory tests were conducted to optimize the design.
IWWG International Waste Working Group POSSIBILITIES RESPECTIVELY CONFLICTS OF INTEREST OF METHANE OXIDATION LAYERS AND CONCEPTS OF REUSEDipl.-Ing. Oliver Gamperling, Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Tintner
To prevent harmful influences on the environment in the future today’s policy is aimed towards the pre-treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). By reducing the emission potential of MSW before landfilling, environmental impacts should be kept to a minimum. An abatement of the emission potential should be performed under controlled conditions. Corresponding options are represented by mechanical-biological pre-treatment (MBT) or waste incineration. In spite of provisions made, the problem of old bioreactor landfills should not be overlooked. The strategy embarked on over the last decades was to deposit MSW without any pre-treatment. As a result liquid and gaseous emissions polluted – and continue to pollute – the surrounding environment, especially soil, groundwater and atmosphere – all subjects of protection. Nowadays these old landfills represent a great challenge. They frequently have to undergo remediation, at times at enormous expense.
IWWG International Waste Working Group ASSESSMENT OF BIODEGRADABILITY OF WASTE IN OLD LANDFILLYasumasa Tojo, Suthatip Pueboobpaphan, Professor Takayuki Matsuo, T. Matsuto, Yoshitada Kakuta
In the aftercare management of landfill, to estimate how long it will take for complete stabilization of buried waste is quite important. Especially, to determine the biodegradability of the waste at the time of closure becomes essential in order to establish long-term plan of aftercare management. If the waste is comprised of only easily degradable organic components, it may be possible to determine the absolute biodegradability by applying ordinary test method, such as the respiration test or biochemical methane potential test. However, as for the waste in old landfill, easily degradable organic matter usually has already decomposed and vanished in many cases. Alternatively, slowly degradable organic substance becomes major component of organic matter contained in the waste.
IWWG International Waste Working Group LANDFILL REMEDIATION IN IRELAND – REGULATED AND HISTORICAL – A CASE STUDYJ. O'Neill, B. O'Neill, Margaret Keegan
Those landfill sites in Ireland, which have been closed are still being monitored for compliance with respect to aftercare and restoration, and some will require significant remediation works to eliminate the potential for environmental pollution. The DoEHLG, in recognition of the financial burden being placed on local authorities with respect to remediation of long-established, closed landfills has provided grant assistance of €13m for these works in 2006. A number of sites were prioritised for funding and each site possesses its own unique characteristics, i.e. coastal, rural, urban, proximity to designated Natura 2000 sites and other sites of ecological interest. The particular risks involved and the priorities for restoration, which were identified, was reflected in the range of remedial works to be undertaken.
IWWG International Waste Working Group SUSTAINABLE REDEVLOPMENT OF FORMER AND ABANDONED LANDFILLS:
LESSONS FROM PRACTICEDr. E. Kavazanjian
Redevelopment of former and abandoned landfill sites can play a major role in the environmental, economic, and social components of the triple bottom line of sustainable development. Environmental benefits of redevelopment may include isolation of waste from the environment or removal of waste, ecological enhancements, and/or remediation of soil and groundwater impacts from waste and waste by-products. Economic benefits include revenue and resources (e.g. labor) for maintenance and monitoring of the site, profits for the successful developer, and indirect economic benefits to the community such as enhancement of the value of adjacent properties.
IWWG International Waste Working Group ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL IN GREECEDespina Chatzikosma, Demetrios Panagiotakopoulos, Evangelos A. Voudrias
Uncontrolled landfills are sources of environmental deterioration, as they pose hazards to the environment and human health. In Greece, in February 2004 there were 1,125 uncontrolled landfills in operation (www.nomosphysis.org.gr). Greece has been fined by the European Court of Justice for the problem of uncontrolled landfills and, therefore, has set as priority the closure and restoration of uncontrolled landfills by the end of 2008.